(pdf) la semilla de acacia

June 2015

for fence, wood for biofuel, and pods (Dubeux et al., 2014a; Sollenberger et al., 2014). Perceived benefits, however, do not translate directly into research and technology development and adoption by producers. Tree legumes are still underexploited considering how few are currently utilized relative to the large number of species in the family (Isely, 1982).
Extensive research and development of forage legumes has taken place in the last 60 years in different countries, with many successes being reported (Shelton et al., 2005). Fodder tree legume are found in tropical regions, and extensive research effort has been developed in these areas across a range of production systems. In some cases, native vegetation already includes tree legumes which can be utilized in rangelands (Santos et al., 2010). In other cases, they must be introduced and managed for specific purposes. In Australia, for example, a strong effort was made promoting Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Wit in silvopasture systems, with long-lived stands (> 40 yrs.) and successful results (Mullen et al., 2005; Radrizzani et al., 2010). In Africa, research efforts have promoted use of tree legumes in cut-and-carry operations, alley cropping systems, as green manure crops, and in other silvopasture systems. Major species studied include Acacia angustissima, Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala, Sesbania sesban, and Prosopis spp. (Maundu et al., 2009; Franzel and Wambugu, 2007; Franzel et al., 2014). In Indonesia, Sesbania grandiflora, Leucaena leucocephala, and Gliricidia sepium have been used in livestock diets (Dahlanuddin et al., 2013; Dahlanuddin et al., 2014). In the Americas several tree legumes were promoted in integrated tree-livestock systems, including L. leucocephala (Argel et al., 1998), Gliricidia sepium (Rangel et al., 2010; Rangel et al., 2011), Prosopis juliflora (Felker and Bandurski, 1979), Cratylia argentea (Ibrahim et al., 2001), and Mimosa caesalpiinifolia (Apolinário et al., 2015).
After establishment, tree legumes have competitive ecological advantages (e.g., competition for light, water, and nutrients) compared with herbaceous legumes. Persistence under grazing/browsing will be critical to ensure sustainable production over the years. The potential of tree legumes in the tropical and subtropical world is still underexploited. In the new global scenario of climate change accompanied by increasing N fertilizer costs and greater demand for grain caused by a burgeoning human population, we foresee tree legumes playing an increasing role in livestock production systems, particularly in tropical climates.

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Forage legumes are known for their capacity to fix atmospheric N2 and to improve nutritive value of livestock diets by providing higher levels of crude protein (Sollenberger et al., 2014). Benefits from tree legumes also include ecosystem services such as C sequestration, nutrient recycling from deep soil layers, provision of shade for livestock, and production of other products such as timber … [Show full abstract]

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